Trade during the Crusades brought dyes…

.. and awareness in the Renaissance brought exotic colors from the Orient and Europe – and later from America.

Trade routes across the Gobi Desert and from China to the Mediteranean had dye sources moving all over the world.

Things like walnut shells, oak bark, pomegranite flowers, and sumac were used with Woad, Weld, and Madder.   All these were from plant sources.

(Image: Woad, Weld, Sumac, and